Value engineering is a system, but, instead of parts, it consists of approaches, understandings, and techniques – for one sole purpose, the efficient identification of unnecessary cost.
Instead of thinking and talking in terms of "things" we must change to "functions".
No one really wants a refrigerator, he wants the food preserved.
Without meaningful cost, decisions will not, and cannot, be made to provide good value.
Whenever the objective is to promote beneficial change, always use specifics.
Generalities serve only to prevent changes and protect the status quo.